German Grammar for beginners

Why learn about Grammar?

Learning a foreign language can be much easier if you know the grammar. Of course, you can learn one foreign language like a baby does, just hearing others speaking that language. But it will take longer time and a lot of conversation with native speakers.

The Grammar Terms

Each word in a sentence have its role and this role is associated with a grammatical term. The grammatical terms are listed and explained below:

English Deutsch français italiano español română
verb das Verb, -en /
das Zeitwort, ¨er
le verbe il verbo el verbo verb

To become familiar with some of the grammatical terms used, take a look at this sentence:

“The boy is playing peacefully with a white dog in the yard.”

the grammatical term explanation
The definite article indicates something definite
boy noun (subject) somebody or something performing the action
is playing verb indicates the action performed by the subject
peacefully adverb describes the verb (how is the action done?)
with conjunction indicates the link
a indefinite article indicates something indefinite
white adjective describes the noun (how it is?)
dog noun (object) somebody or something
in preposition here indicates the place
the definite article indicates something definite
yard noun (object) somebody or something

…and another sentence:

“He has two sisters and a brother.”

the grammatical term explanation
He personal pronoun (subject) this replaces the noun “The boy
has verb indicates the action performed by the subject
two numeral indicates the number
sisters noun (object) somebody or something the verb is referring to
and conjunction links two parts of a sentence together
a numeral indicates the number
brother noun (object) somebody or something the verb is referring to

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

In German vocabulary, noun genders are indicated by:
der (masc. – masculine),
die (fem. – feminine),
das (neu. – neuter).

The following abbreviations are used:
adj. (adjective),
n. (noun),
v. (verb),
pl. (plural).

- – - -

Wörter mit den Endungen -keit, -ung, -schaft, -heit, -tion, -lein, -tum, -ling, -nis, sind Nomen und werden großgeschrieben.
-keit : die Möglichkeit = possibility = posibilitatea
-ung : die Übung = exercise = exerciţiul
-schaft : die Freundschaft = friendship = prietenia
-heit : die Freiheit = freedom = libertatea
-tion : die Lektion = lesson = lecţia
-lein : das Fräulein = miss, young lady = domnişoara
-tum : der Reichtum = richness = bogăţia
-ling : der Frühling = spring = primăvara
-nis : das Gefängnis = prison = închisoarea

- – - -

tragen = to carry, to wear
Der Polizist trug eine kugelsichere Weste. = The policeman was wearing a bullet-proof vest.
° tragen // third-person singular simple present: trägt // past tense: trug // past participle: getragen

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